Guidelines for players physical preparation
Basketball is a physically demanding game. The essence of physical training for young players is the harmonious education of the player and the training of special activities to achieve the main goal – perfect and accurate control of body movements in terms of space and time (Paulauskas, 2010). In order to achieve the highest goals, the coach of the basketball school must understand the basic regularities of the body’s adaptation to physical exertions, correctly choose the exercises, take into account the individual characteristics of the basketball player, and exercise physical education control.
During the training process of players constantly their age, health, physical development and working capacity should be taken into account.
Choosing the right physical training strategy is essential for basketball players to maintain good technical performance during competition period – good shooting percentage, precise passing as well as strong and solid fitness base must lead to better shape than their opponents. There is a clear need to know what physical abilities a player needs most and how they can be developed.
The structure of the physical load during the practices must conform to the game environment and intensity, the most important physical abilities must be focused to train during the preparation period.
Exercise usually involves developing the physical abilities of speed, strength, muscle power, endurance, short-term repetition, agility and coordination. Even with the correct selection of training tools, the training of some skills has an impact on others.
Physical training of basketball players can be divided into basic (general) and special.
Basic physical education is the versatile development of physical abilities through physical activity. It aims to strengthen the physical power base for further specific physical training. Modern physical training of basketball players, unlike in the past, is not related to versatile – general physical training, but to special training measures.
Specific physical training is the development of specific functions of the physical abilities and systems that directly influence the physical performance of the player. Basketball players’ physical fitness is described in complexity: muscle power, speed, strength, agility and other physical abilities are interrelated. The physical fitness of a basketball player can only be objectively determined and assessed by measuring the physical fitness and functional components.
The human body has rules of adaptation (adaptation) to external environmental factors (Skernevičius et al., 2011). One of the strongest external factors is physical and mental strain. During this, the body is getting fatigued. The functions and structures of the player’s body must adapt to it, i.e. to have and adaptation. One of the unique human adaptive phenomena is the so-called supercompensation. It allows you to recover at a higher capacity than before. This is one of the main rules of adaptation. Under the influence of regular basketball training, the overcompensation phenomenon allows the player to work more intensively, longer and more economically.
During exercise and adaptation to it, the second rule of adaptation, the rule of dominant. The dominant is the unified mechanism of the nervous, humoral, and executive systems.
F. Meerson (1986) found that the function of the dominant system promotes protein synthesis in structures that were fatigued. At the same time, it inhibits the maintenance of non-working systems and the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. In this way, tissues, cells, organs or systems that are not working can be weakened and working properly can become stronger.
The human body is characterized by general and specific adaptation. Specific adaptation can occur at both structural and molecular levels. For example, ball passing training will result in specific adaptations such as a one-time contraction of muscle, activation of high-speed muscle fibers, and changes in the structure of local action. Meanwhile, while playing basketball, many general adaptation phenomena will occur – circulatory and respiratory function, speed, endurance and other physical abilities, individual movements and actions will purposefully become improved.
Human adaptation to changing living conditions over many thousands and millions of years through inherited genotypic changes is called genotypic adaptation. One person’s adaptation to the surrounding environment, including exercise, is called phenotypic adaptation. No other physical activity is equivalent to sport in terms of the adaptive changes it causes.
Basketball is a very complex sport. Although limited to 40 minutes, the game is characterized by high intensity, specific work-to-rest ratio, high emotional strain and difficult movement coordination.
The player’s body weight also has its advantages and disadvantages. However, there can be no unequivocal approach on this issue, it is important to evaluate the active body mass, which consists of muscle and the passive body mass, which is influenced by fat mass. High body weight often becomes a barrier to jumps, accelerations, and runs because of the high requirements for carrying, feeding, and supplying oxygen. However, many forms of contact are allowed in modern basketball, so it is important for the player to have enough weight and use the power of its inertia. Muscle mass depends a lot on muscle tension, power, so high muscle mass can do more power work.